July 19, 2019

Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter Between 97 and 100 Percent, Study Finds

Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter is on the rise, according to a new study appearing in the July 7 edition of Emerging Infectious Disease. Researchers from the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India, where Campylobacter rates remain steady throughout the year, tested 142 samples and found that all of them were resistant to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, (Septra, Bactrim) and 97 percent were resistant to quinolone (nalidixic acid) and fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin). and erythromycin, azithromycin, gentamicin, furazolidone, and chloramphenicol. Multi-drug resistance was also high.

Petri DishThe resistances to some of these drugs, which are commonly used to treat Campylobacter infections, developed over a relatively short period of time. For example, there was no reported resistance to fluoroquinolone in India in 1994,  but it had reached 79 percent resistance during 2001–2006 and 97 percent in this study which looked at samples collected between 2008 and 2010 .

Resistance to ampicillin and tetracycline was 26.1 percent and 17.6 percent respectively.  And susceptibility to erythromycin, azithromycin, gentamicin, furazolidone, and chloramphenicol was 97 percent for most isolates.

Campylobacter is a bacteria that is spread through the fecal-oral route. It causes an infection called campylobacteriosis with symptoms including abdominal cramping, fever, vomiting and diarrhea that can sometimes be bloody.  Young children, seniors, pregnant women and others with compromised immune systems are especially vulnerable. In rare cases, people with campylobcateriosis will develop Guillain-Barre Syndrome, which causes paralysis. Researchers of this study noted that some Campylobacter isolates have mutations that allow them to resist antibiotics and suggest constant monitoring of Campylobacter and its response to antibiotics is a needed public health measure.





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